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World War I

World War I (WWI), which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It involved all the world's great powers,[5] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war).[6] These alliances both reorganised (Italy fought for the Allies), and expanded as more nations entered the war. Ultimately more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[7][8] More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of great technological advances in firepower without corresponding advances in mobility. It was the sixth-deadliest conflict in world history, subsequently paving the way for various political changes such as revolutions in the nations involved.[9]
Long-term causes of the war included the imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the French Republic, and Italy. The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Yugoslav nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina was the proximate trigger of the war. It resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia.[10][11] Several alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 28 July, the conflict opened with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia,[12][13] followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against Germany. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, United States forces entered the trenches and the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day. The war had ended in victory for the Allies.
Events on the home fronts were as tumultuous as on the battle fronts, as the participants tried to mobilize their manpower and economic resources to fight a total war. By the end of the war, four major imperial powers —the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires— ceased to exist. The successor states of the former two lost a great amount of territory, while the latter two were dismantled entirely. The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states.[14] The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires, the repercussions of Germany's defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are generally agreed to be factors contributing to World War II.

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The Frog Prince

1
One fine evening a young princess put on her bonnet and clogs, and went out to take a walk by herself in a wood; and when she came to a cool spring of water with a rose in the middle of it, she sat herself down to rest a while. Now she had a golden ball in her hand, which was her favourite plaything; and she was always tossing it up into the air, and catching it again as it fell.
After a time she threw it up so high that she missed catching it as it fell; and the ball bounded away, and rolled along on the ground, until at last it fell down into the spring. The princess looked into the spring after her ball, but it was very deep, so deep that she could not see the bottom of it. She began to cry, and said, 'Alas! if I could only get my ball again, I would give all my fine clothes and jewels, and everything that I have in the world.'
Whilst she was speaking, a frog put its head out of the water, and said, 'Princess, why do you weep so bitterly?'
'Alas!' said she, 'what can you do for me, you nasty frog? My golden ball has fallen into the spring.'
The frog said, 'I do not want your pearls, and jewels, and fine clothes; but if you will love me, and let me live with you and eat from off your golden plate, and sleep on your bed, I will bring you your ball again.'
'What nonsense,' thought the princess, 'this silly frog is talking! He can never even get out of the spring to visit me, though he may be able to get my ball for me, and therefore I will tell him he shall have what he asks.'
So she said to the frog, 'Well, if you will bring me my ball, I will do all you ask.'
Then the frog put his head down, and dived deep under the water; and after a little while he came up again, with the ball in his mouth, and threw it on the edge of the spring.
As soon as the young princess saw her ball, she ran to pick it up; and she was so overjoyed to have it in her hand again, that she never thought of the frog, but ran home with it as fast as she could.

2
The frog called after her, 'Stay, princess, and take me with you as you said,'
But she did not stop to hear a word.
The next day, just as the princess had sat down to dinner, she heard a strange noise - tap, tap - plash, plash - as if something was coming up the marble staircase, and soon afterwards there was a gentle knock at the door, and a little voice cried out and said:

'Open the door, my princess dear,
Open the door to thy true love here!
And mind the words that thou and I said
By the fountain cool, in the greenwood shade.'

Then the princess ran to the door and opened it, and there she saw the frog, whom she had quite forgotten. At this sight she was sadly frightened, and shutting the door as fast as she could came back to her seat.
The king, her father, seeing that something had frightened her, asked her what was the matter.
'There is a nasty frog,' said she, 'at the door, that lifted my ball for me out of the spring this morning. I told him that he should live with me here, thinking that he could never get out of the spring; but there he is at the door, and he wants to come in.'
While she was speaking the frog knocked again at the door, and said:

'Open the door, my princess dear,
Open the door to thy true love here!
And mind the words that thou and I said
By the fountain cool, in the greenwood shade.'

Then the king said to the young princess, 'As you have given your word you must keep it; so go and let him in.'
She did so, and the frog hopped into the room, and then straight on - tap, tap - plash, plash - from the bottom of the room to the top, till he came up close to the table where the princess sat.
'Pray lift me upon chair,' said he to the princess, 'and let me sit next to you.'
As soon as she had done this, the frog said, 'Put your plate nearer to me, that I may eat out of it.'
This she did, and when he had eaten as much as he could, he said, 'Now I am tired; carry me upstairs, and put me into your bed.' And the princess, though very unwilling, took him up in her hand, and put him upon the pillow of her own bed, where he slept all night long.

3
As soon as it was light the frog jumped up, hopped downstairs, and went out of the house.
'Now, then,' thought the princess, 'at last he is gone, and I shall be troubled with him no more.'
But she was mistaken; for when night came again she heard the same tapping at the door; and the frog came once more, and said:

'Open the door, my princess dear,
Open the door to thy true love here!
And mind the words that thou and I said
By the fountain cool, in the greenwood shade.'

And when the princess opened the door the frog came in, and slept upon her pillow as before, till the morning broke. And the third night he did the same. But when the princess awoke on the following morning she was astonished to see, instead of the frog, a handsome prince, gazing on her with the most beautiful eyes she had ever seen and standing at the head of her bed.
He told her that he had been enchanted by a spiteful fairy, who had changed him into a frog; and that he had been fated so to abide till some princess should take him out of the spring, and let him eat from her plate, and sleep upon her bed for three nights.
'You,' said the prince, 'have broken his cruel charm, and now I have nothing to wish for but that you should go with me into my father's kingdom, where I will marry you, and love you as long as you live.'
The young princess, you may be sure, was not long in saying 'Yes' to all this; and as they spoke a brightly coloured coach drove up, with eight beautiful horses, decked with plumes of feathers and a golden harness; and behind the coach rode the prince's servant, faithful Heinrich, who had bewailed the misfortunes of his dear master during his enchantment so long and so bitterly, that his heart had well-nigh burst.
They then took leave of the king, and got into the coach with eight horses, and all set out, full of joy and merriment, for the prince's kingdom, which they reached safely; and there they lived happily a great many years.

Mr Sticky

No one knew how Mr. Sticky got in the fish tank.
"He's very small," Mum said as she peered at the tiny water snail. "Just a black dot."
"He'll grow," said Abby and pulled her pyjama bottoms up again before she got into bed. They were always falling down.

In the morning Abby jumped out of bed and switched on the light in her fish tank.
Gerry, the fat orange goldfish, was dozing inside the stone archway. Jaws was already awake, swimming along the front of the tank with his white tail floating and twitching. It took Abby a while to find Mr. Sticky because he was clinging to the glass near the bottom, right next to the gravel.
At school that day she wrote about the mysterious Mr. Sticky who was so small you could mistake him for a piece of gravel. Some of the girls in her class said he seemed an ideal pet for her and kept giggling about it.
That night Abby turned on the light to find Mr. Sticky clinging to the very tiniest, waviest tip of the pond weed. It was near the water filter so he was bobbing about in the air bubbles.
"That looks fun," Abby said. She tried to imagine what it must be like to have to hang on to things all day and decided it was probably very tiring. She fed the fish then lay on her bed and watched them chase each other round and round the archway. When they stopped Gerry began nibbling at the pond weed with his big pouty lips. He sucked Mr. Sticky into his mouth then blew him back out again in a stream of water. The snail floated down to the bottom of the tank among the coloured gravel.

"I think he's grown a bit," Abby told her Mum at breakfast the next day.
"Just as well if he's going to be gobbled up like that," her Mum said, trying to put on her coat and eat toast at the same time.
"But I don't want him to get too big or he won't be cute anymore. Small things are cute aren't they?"
"Yes they are. But big things can be cute too. Now hurry up, I'm going to miss my train."

At school that day, Abby drew an elephant. She needed two pieces of expensive paper to do both ends but the teacher didn't mind because she was pleased with the drawing and wanted it on the wall. They sellotaped them together, right across the elephant's middle. In the corner of the picture, Abby wrote her full name, Abigail, and drew tiny snails for the dots on the 'i's The teacher said that was very creative.

At the weekend they cleaned out the tank. "There's a lot of algae on the sides," Mum said. "I'm not sure Mr. Sticky's quite up to the job yet."
They scooped the fish out and put them in a bowl while they emptied some of the water. Mr. Sticky stayed out of the way, clinging to the glass while Mum used the special 'vacuum cleaner' to clean the gravel. Abby trimmed the new pieces of pond weed down to size and scrubbed the archway and the filter tube. Mum poured new water into the tank.
"Where's Mr. Sticky?" Abby asked.
"On the side," Mum said. She was busy concentrating on the water. "Don't worry I was careful."
Abby looked on all sides of the tank. There was no sign of the water snail.
"He's probably in the gravel then," her mum said. "Come on let's get this finished. I've got work to do." She plopped the fish back in the clean water where they swam round and round, looking puzzled.

That evening Abby went up to her bedroom to check the tank. The water had settled and looked lovely and clear but there was no sign of Mr. Sticky. She lay on her bed and did some exercises, stretching out her legs and feet and pointing her toes. Stretching was good for your muscles and made you look tall a model had said on the t.v. and she looked enormous. When Abby had finished, she kneeled down to have another look in the tank but there was still no sign of Mr. Sticky. She went downstairs.

Her mum was in the study surrounded by papers. She had her glasses on and her hair was all over the place where she'd been running her hands through it. She looked impatient when she saw Abby in the doorway and even more impatient when she heard the bad news.
"He'll turn up." was all she said. "Now off to bed Abby. I've got masses of work to catch up on."
Abby felt her face go hot and red. It always happened when she was angry or upset.
"You've hoovered him up haven't you," she said. You were in such a rush you hoovered him up."
"I have not. I was very careful. But he is extremely small."
"What's wrong with being small?"

"Nothing at all. But it makes things hard to find."
"Or notice," Abby said and ran from the room.

The door to the bedroom opened and Mum's face appeared around the crack. Abby tried to ignore her but it was hard when she walked over to the bed and sat next to her. She was holding her glasses in her hand. She waved them at Abby.
"These are my new pair," she said. "Extra powerful, for snail hunting." She smiled at Abby. Abby tried not to smile back.
"And I've got a magnifying glass," Abby suddenly remembered and rushed off to find it.
They sat beside each other on the floor. On their knees they shuffled around the tank, peering into the corners among the big pebbles, at the gravel and the pondweed.
"Ah ha!" Mum suddenly cried.
"What?" Abby moved her magnifying glass to where her mum was pointing.
There, tucked in the curve of the archway, perfectly hidden against the dark stone, sat Mr. Sticky. And right next to him was another water snail, even smaller than him.
"Mrs Sticky!" Abby breathed. "But where did she come from?"
"I'm beginning to suspect the pond weed don't you think?"
They both laughed and climbed into Abby's bed together, cuddling down under the duvet. It was cozy but a bit of a squeeze.
"Budge up," Mum said, giving Abby a push with her bottom.
"I can't, I'm already on the edge."
"My goodness you've grown then. When did that happen? You could have put an elephant in here last time we did this."
Abby put her head on her mum's chest and smiled.

The Twelve Dancing Princesses

There was a king who had twelve beautiful daughters. They slept in twelve beds all in one room and when they went to bed, the doors were shut and locked up. However, every morning their shoes were found to be quite worn through as if they had been danced in all night. Nobody could find out how it happened, or where the princesses had been.
So the king made it known to all the land that if any person could discover the secret and find out where it was that the princesses danced in the night, he would have the one he liked best to take as his wife, and would be king after his death. But whoever tried and did not succeed, after three days and nights, they would be put to death.
A king's son soon came. He was well entertained, and in the evening was taken to the chamber next to the one where the princesses lay in their twelve beds. There he was to sit and watch where they went to dance; and, in order that nothing could happen without him hearing it, the door of his chamber was left open. But the king's son soon fell asleep; and when he awoke in the morning he found that the princesses had all been dancing, for the soles of their shoes were full of holes.
The same thing happened the second and third night and so the king ordered his head to be cut off.
After him came several others; but they all had the same luck, and all lost their lives in the same way.
Now it happened that an old soldier, who had been wounded in battle and could fight no longer, passed through the country where this king reigned, and as he was travelling through a wood, he met an old woman, who asked him where he was going.
'I hardly know where I am going, or what I had better do,' said the soldier; 'but I think I would like to find out where it is that the princesses dance, and then in time I might be a king.'
'Well,' said the old woman, 'that is not a very hard task: only take care not to drink any of the wine which one of the princesses will bring to you in the evening; and as soon as she leaves you pretend to be fast asleep.'

Then she gave him a cloak, and said, 'As soon as you put that on you will become invisible, and you will then be able to follow the princesses wherever they go.' When the soldier heard all this good advice, he was determined to try his luck, so he went to the king, and said he was willing to undertake the task.
He was as well received as the others had been, and the king ordered fine royal robes to be given him; and when the evening came he was led to the outer chamber.
Just as he was going to lie down, the eldest of the princesses brought him a cup of wine; but the soldier threw it all away secretly, taking care not to drink a drop. Then he laid himself down on his bed, and in a little while began to snore very loudly as if he was fast asleep.
When the twelve princesses heard this they laughed heartily; and the eldest said, 'This fellow too might have done a wiser thing than lose his life in this way!' Then they rose and opened their drawers and boxes, and took out all their fine clothes, and dressed themselves at the mirror, and skipped about as if they were eager to begin dancing.
But the youngest said, 'I don't know why it is, but while you are so happy I feel very uneasy; I am sure some mischance will befall us.'
'You simpleton,' said the eldest, 'you are always afraid; have you forgotten how many kings' sons have already watched in vain? And as for this soldier, even if I had not given him his sleeping draught, he would have slept soundly enough.'
When they were all ready, they went and looked at the soldier; but he snored on, and did not stir hand or foot: so they thought they were quite safe.
Then the eldest went up to her own bed and clapped her hands, and the bed sank into the floor and a trap-door flew open. The soldier saw them going down through the trap-door one after another, the eldest leading the way; and thinking he had no time to lose, he jumped up, put on the cloak which the old woman had given him, and followed them.
However, in the middle of the stairs he trod on the gown of the youngest princess, and she cried out to her sisters, 'All is not right; someone took hold of my gown.'
'You silly creature!' said the eldest, 'it is nothing but a nail in the wall.'
Down they all went, and at the bottom they found themselves in a most delightful grove of trees; and the leaves were all of silver, and glittered and sparkled beautifully. The soldier wished to take away some token of the place; so he broke off a little branch, and there came a loud noise from the tree. Then the youngest daughter said again, 'I am sure all is not right -- did not you hear that noise? That never happened before.'
But the eldest said, 'It is only our princes, who are shouting for joy at our approach.'
They came to another grove of trees, where all the leaves were of gold; and afterwards to a third, where the leaves were all glittering diamonds. And the soldier broke a branch from each; and every time there was a loud noise, which made the youngest sister tremble with fear. But the eldest still said it was only the princes, who were crying for joy.
They went on till they came to a great lake; and at the side of the lake there lay twelve little boats with twelve handsome princes in them, who seemed to be waiting there for the princesses.
One of the princesses went into each boat, and the soldier stepped into the same boat as the youngest. As they were rowing over the lake, the prince who was in the boat with the youngest princess and the soldier said, 'I do not know why it is, but though I am rowing with all my might we do not get on so fast as usual, and I am quite tired: the boat seems very heavy today.'
'It is only the heat of the weather,' said the princess, 'I am very warm, too.'
On the other side of the lake stood a fine, illuminated castle from which came the merry music of horns and trumpets. There they all landed, and went into the castle, and each prince danced with his princess; and the soldier, who was still invisible, danced with them too. When any of the princesses had a cup of wine set by her, he drank it all up, so that when she put the cup to her mouth it was empty. At this, too, the youngest sister was terribly frightened, but the eldest always silenced her.
They danced on till three o'clock in the morning, and then all their shoes were worn out, so that they were obliged to leave. The princes rowed them back again over the lake (but this time the soldier placed himself in the boat with the eldest princess); and on the opposite shore they took leave of each other, the princesses promising to come again the next night.
When they came to the stairs, the soldier ran on before the princesses, and laid himself down. And as the twelve, tired sisters slowly came up, they heard him snoring in his bed and they said, 'Now all is quite safe'. Then they undressed themselves, put away their fine clothes, pulled off their shoes, and went to bed.
In the morning the soldier said nothing about what had happened, but determined to see more of this strange adventure, and went again on the second and third nights. Everything happened just as before: the princesses danced till their shoes were worn to pieces, and then returned home. On the third night the soldier carried away one of the golden cups as a token of where he had been.
As soon as the time came when he was to declare the secret, he was taken before the king with the three branches and the golden cup; and the twelve princesses stood listening behind the door to hear what he would say.
The king asked him. 'Where do my twelve daughters dance at night?'
The soldier answered, 'With twelve princes in a castle underground.' And then he told the king all that had happened, and showed him the three branches and the golden cup which he had brought with him.
The king called for the princesses, and asked them whether what the soldier said was true and when they saw that they were discovered, and that it was of no use to deny what had happened, they confessed it all.
So the king asked the soldier which of the princesses he would choose for his wife; and he answered, 'I am not very young, so I will have the eldest.' -- and they were married that very day, and the soldier was chosen to be the king's heir.

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The 20 Best Ozzie Guillen Misquotes

Miami Marlins manager Ozzie Guillen is currently taking a break from the team’s road trip for a pit stop in Miami to dish out a few thousand apologies for a comment he recently made to Time magazine. If you’re unfamiliar – and chances are you’re not – here’s the comment:
“I love Fidel Castro. I respect Fidel Castro. You know why? A lot of people have wanted to kill Fidel Castro for the last 60 years, but that mother*cker is still here.”
People in Miami hate Castro, in case you haven’t read a history book in the past 60 years, so it shouldn’t come as much of a surprise that anti-Castro groups are absolutely losing their sh*t over this incredibly stupid comment, and the Marlins already responded by suspending Guillen for 5 games. And the main reason I'm calling it stupid is because you shouldn’t ever say the phrase “I love Fidel Castro.” Even if the guy cures puppy AIDS, your response should still be: "That was cool, but Fidel Castro is still an assbag."
I understand what Guillen was trying to say, but as usual he didn’t put much thought into what he was actually saying and who he was saying it to. So it didn’t take too long for the Internet to react and of course the people who didn’t get it freaked out and called for Guillen’s head and the people who did get it turned it into the joke of the day.
Daniel Tosh got it and he created #OzzieMisquotes on Twitter to mostly humorous results. I say mostly because a lot of people – A LOT – didn’t understand the joke and either took offense to the responses or made terrible jokes in response. I hate being a soap box guy here about Twitter, but whichever presidential candidate vows to clean up bad jokes on Twitter will get my vote.
That said, here are my 20 favorite #OzzieMisquotes from yesterday.
(Banner via Getty)

Ozzie Guillen Suspended By Marlins For Fidel Castro Comments

MIAMI — A contrite Ozzie Guillen sat in the heart of Little Havana seeking forgiveness for what the Miami Marlins manager called the biggest mistake of his life – saying he admired Fidel Castro.
This wasn't some offhanded insult about a sports writer, the type of thing that got the outspoken Guillen in trouble in Chicago. This was personal to the fan base that the Marlins rely on so much that they built their new stadium in the middle of the city's Cuban-American neighborhood.
Castro is the sworn enemy of those fans.
So after being suspended for five games Tuesday, the Marlins manager tried to quell the tempest.
"I'm here on my knees to apologize," Guillen said.
"I'm very sorry about the problem, what happened. I will do everything in my power to make it better. ... When you make a mistake like this, you can't sleep."
A chastened Guillen, who has a history of polarizing comments about gays and immigrants, among others, spoke without a script and made no disclaimers. He said he'll do whatever he can to repair relations with Cuban-Americans angered by his praise of the Cuban dictator, remarks he said he didn't mean.
Guillen, who is Venezuelan, told Time magazine he loves Castro and respects the retired Cuban leader for staying in power so long. In response, at least two Miami politicians said Guillen should lose his job. Callers on Spanish-language radio in Miami agreed and 100 demonstrators picketed Marlins Park toting signs like "NO APOLOGIES FIRE HIM NOW."
"He is full with hypocrisy," said Luis Martinez, who has lived in Miami since the late 1950s. "I don't accept any kind of pardon from him. They should get him out."
The team didn't consider firing Guillen or asking him to resign five games into his tenure, Marlins president David Samson said.
Guillen was hired to help usher in a new baseball era for the Marlins, saddled in recent years with mediocre teams and worse attendance. The team was to rely on South Florida's large Cuban-American population to help rebuild its fan base with the $634 million ballpark that opened last week.
At the hourlong news conference Tuesday morning, there was little evidence of Guillen's roguish charm or quick wit, which have made him a favorite with fans and reporters since he became a major league manager in 2004. Speaking somberly, he took full responsibility for his comments, but said they were misinterpreted by Time's reporter.
"It was a personal mistake of the thing I had in my mind and what I said," Guillen said in Spanish. "What I wanted to say in Spanish, I said in English in a wrong way."
Guillen said he doesn't love or admire Castro.
"I was saying I cannot believe somebody who hurt so many people over the years is still alive," he said.
Time said Tuesday it stands by its story.
Guillen said the uproar he created has left him sad, embarrassed and feeling stupid. He said he accepted the team's punishment.
"When you're a sportsman, you shouldn't be involved with politics," he said.
"I'm going to be a Miami guy for the rest of my life. I want to walk in the street with my head up and feel not this bad, the way I feel now."
Guillen has gotten in trouble before on issues ranging from sexual orientation to illegal immigration. Just last week, he boasted about getting drunk after games.
Those episodes quickly faded. But on South Florida's scale of political incorrectness, praise for Castro is a home run, and it was unclear how long it would take for anger toward Guillen to subside.
Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig said the remarks "have no place in our game" and were "offensive to an important part of the Miami community and others throughout the world."
"As I have often said, baseball is a social institution with important social responsibilities," Selig added in a statement. "All of our 30 clubs play significant roles within their local communities, and I expect those who represent Major League Baseball to act with the kind of respect and sensitivity that the game's many cultures deserve."
Marlins officials said Guillen still had the support of the organization.
"We believe in him," said Samson, the team president. "We believe in his apology. We believe everybody deserves a second chance." He said he expected no further punishment from MLB.
Guillen apologized over the weekend after his remarks were published in Time, then left his team in Philadelphia, where the Marlins were playing the Phillies, and flew to Miami.
The teams resume their three-game series Wednesday in Philadelphia. Guillen said he'll be there to apologize to his players, but he won't be in the dugout. Bench coach Joey Cora will be the interim manager.
"The Marlins acknowledge the seriousness of the comments attributed to Guillen," read a statement from the team. "The pain and suffering caused by Fidel Castro cannot be minimized, especially in a community filled with victims of the dictatorship."
The suspension, which takes effect immediately, recalled the punishment given to Marge Schott, the late owner of the Cincinnati Reds. Schott so embarrassed baseball in the 1990s with her inflammatory racial remarks and fond recollections of Adolf Hitler that she was suspended from ownership duties for a season.
"After spending years of my life with Ozzie Guillen, I can honestly say he has never been this apologetic," tweeted former slugger Frank Thomas, who played for Guillen with the Chicago White Sox. "I know he is really hurting inside for what he said. If you really know him this was not his intentions at all."
In Cuba, a column posted on multiple state-run and pro-government websites said the backlash against Guillen showed Miami has become "a banana republic" that censors unpopular opinions.
"The sensationalist and cowed Miami press, the politicians, have used these declaration of his to raise a scandal and in passing try to win visibility and votes for the upcoming elections," wrote Edmundo Garcia. "Some want to prohibit thoughts and opinions that differ from theirs."
About 100 reporters, photographers and cameramen attended Guillen's news conference, a turnout to rival some late-season Marlins crowds in years gone by.
Guillen sat alone at the podium and began in Spanish, speaking without notes for several minutes before taking questions. Shortly after he started, his voice wavered mid-sentence. He paused to take a sip of water and clear his throat.
"This is the biggest mistake I've made so far in my life," Guillen said.
Guillen spoke in Spanish for about 80 percent of the news conference. Guillen said he was suspended without pay, but Samson later said the manager will be paid and will donate the money to Miami human-rights causes.
___
Associated Press writers David Ginsburg in Baltimore, Janie McCauley in San Francisco, Peter Orsi in Havana and Gisela Salomon in Miami contributed to this report.

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National Crime Prevention and Community Safety Strategy of Bangladesh


Abbreviations

 

BP                              Bangladesh Police
CAP                            Community Action Plan
CP                              Community Policing
CPC                            Crime Prevention Centre
CPF                            Community Policing Forum
CPS                            Community Policing Strategy
CPTED                        Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
CPO’s                         Community Policing Officers
DIG                             Deputy Inspector General
IG                                Inspector General
MoE                            Ministry of Education
MoHA                          Ministry of Home Affairs
PRP                            Police Reform Programme
PRoB                          Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh
NCPAC                        National Crime Prevention Advisory Committee
NCPCC                        National Crime Prevention Coordination Committee
TOR                            Terms of Reference
UNDP                          United Nations Development Programme

Table of Contents



Appendix          Crime Analysis Framework                   


1.         Executive Summary


Crime prevention is ‘any initiative or policy which reduces or eliminates the aggregate level of victimization or the risk of individual criminal participation. It includes government and community based programs to reduce the incidents of risk factors correlated with criminal participation and the rate of victimization, as well as efforts to change perceptions’.

Since 2003, a number of NGO agencies have undertaken research and conducted community consultations culminating with various pilot programmes, training courses and other means of support. Many of these focus around the Bangladesh Police. In respect to crime, perceptions of safety and community issues, This strategy draws upon the results of this research which illustrates a very clear picture of the issues within Bangladesh.

It also outlines the strategic need to expand the concept of crime prevention to include other aspects of community safety. This is important in the context of a sustainable strategy to reach a sustainable solution.  Simply put, responsibility rests with numerous stakeholders, including Government, Non Government Organisations (NGO’s) and most importantly, the community itself.

At the present time in Bangladesh, MOHA and Bangladesh Police are taking the lead role in establishing a crime prevention and community safety programme through its efforts to implement the Community Policing Strategy (CPS) throughout the country. In time, other government ministries and NGO’s should also incorporate the principles and philosophies of crime prevention and community safety into their respective policies.  For example, the Ministry of Education (MOE) can identify where the principles of crime prevention can apply to its functions and incorporate some aspects to enhance the safety and well being of teachers and students within the school environment.

In Bangladesh, there are four main motivators, or drivers, which underpin the desire to enhance the safety and well being of the people. They evolve from the highest levels of government and extend down to local community groups through the extensive Community Policing networks. These are:

·         The Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh[1]
·         The Universal Charter of Human Rights[2]
·         The Ministry of Home Affairs Vision and Mission Statements; and
·         The Bangladesh Police Vision and Mission Statements.

Community safety is a broad concept which can focus on the individual (physical and emotional well-being), as well as the broader community (economic, environmental and social well-being).  The literature on the subject refers to community safety as an aspect of ‘quality of life’ that incorporates issues such as crime prevention/reduction, road safety, public health, emergency management and the environment.

There are two general approaches to preventing crime. The first aims to prevent crime by making it more difficult, risky and less rewarding to commit. It focuses on the crime-prone situation rather than the offender.  Strategies include physical security, access control, design improvements, surveillance and police patrols. It is commonly referred to as "situational crime prevention".  The second seeks to prevent criminal behaviour by influencing the attitudes and behaviour of those most likely to offend. It aims to reduce the risk factors associated with offending such as poor parenting, school failure and restricted opportunities.  It involves measures such as parenting programmes, school enrichment and youth prevention projects, mentoring and helping young people into training and work. This is commonly referred to as "social or developmental crime prevention"

The following issues are considered to be necessary components of the National Crime Prevention Strategy.  Each has philosophical reasons about why they are considered feasible crime prevention and community safety strategies.  They also have implications regarding the on going or extended impact caused through cause and effect.  There are numerous initiatives and strategies, long term and short term, which can be used to prevent crime at the local level. An understanding of these is essential for effective implementation;

  • Identify Existing Programs and Projects
  • Compendium of Crime Prevention and Community Safety Projects
  • Reporting and Recording Crime
  • Identify Cause and Effect
  • Early Intervention Programs
  • Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
  • Neighbourhood Watch Schemes
  • Reducing the Fear of Crime
  • Poverty Reduction Strategies
  • Equitable Treatment of Women Victims of Crime
  • Role Models/Mentoring
  • Technology and Crime Prevention
  • Drug Awareness and Enforcement Programs
  • Research & Partnerships with Academic Institutions
  • Targeting Repeat Victimisation
  • Firearms Amnesty
  • Targeted Policing 
  • Community Policing Officers

The complexity of crime prevention means each level of government and community has a different role to play. Some are strategically focused while others more action orientated.  It would be impossible to outline all of these in this proposal. Therefore, this paper outlines some of the general and specific strategies and framework believed appropriate to facilitate the evolution of the structure required to introduce crime prevention and community safety philosophies, strategies and finally action into current context of the social development of Bangladesh.

For the effective implementation and the coordination of the ongoing crime prevention programs in BD, this strategy proposes the establishment of:

  • A National Crime Prevention Advisory Committee (NCPAC) at Government level
  • A National Crime Prevention Coordination Committee (NCPCC) within the Bangladesh Police
  • And Local level crime prevention committees in tandem with the proposed Community Policing Units up to the PS level.

Knowing how, where and when to intervene requires both an understanding of the nature of the crime problem and the appreciation of what is available in terms of interventions and crime prevention strategies for tackling them. There needs to be clear understanding of which crime occurs at which locations, what the crime generators are likely to be in terms of opportunities, how offences are committed and when they take place. Data are also needed on, which interventions are appropriate to each situation, what are the tactical, organizational and environmental conditions for their successful implementation and what are the likely economic and opportunity costs for their deployment.

For this purpose this strategy proposes a crime analysis framework based upon the following two categories;

            Crime Centred Analysis (CCA)
            Crime Environment Analysis (CEA)

This framework will contribute to identify the appropriate and specific crime prevention strategies, initiating Proactive policing, plan reactive actions to combat prevailing crimes and planning available resources.

2.         Methodology


This proposal has been developed in direct response to the Terms of Reference (TOR) provided by the United Nations Development Programme - Police Reform Programme (UNDP PRP).  There was extensive consultation with government, non government, and community and business sector groups. A comprehensive literature review was also undertaken using current and historical social development material relevant to Bangladesh. Senior police officers were consulted for their valuable suggestions and feedback. It is developed on the premise that the Government will be committed to a holistic approach towards crime prevention and community safety.  Since 2003, a number of NGO agencies have undertaken research and conducted community consultations culminating with various pilot programmes, training courses and other means of support. Many of these focus around the Bangladesh Police. In respect to crime, perceptions of safety and community issues, this strategy draws upon the results of this research which illustrates a very clear picture of the issues within Bangladesh.

3.         Introduction


Crime prevention is any initiative or policy which reduces or eliminates the aggregate level of victimization or the risk of individual criminal participation. It includes government and community based programs to reduce the incidents of risk factors correlated with criminal participation and the rate of victimization, as well as efforts to change perceptions’.[3]

A question often asked in respect to crime prevention and community safety is “who is responsible for programme development, coordination and implementation”. This paper addresses that question in the context of The Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh and provides a framework which will set the foundation for longer term change throughout the country. It also outlines the strategic need to expand the concept of crime prevention to include other aspects of community safety. This is important in the context of a sustainable strategy to reach a sustainable solution.  Simply put, responsibility rests with numerous stakeholders, including Government, Non Government Organisations (NGO’s) and most importantly, the community itself.

4.         Bangladesh in Profile


The Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh has an estimated 156, 050, 883 (July 2009)[4] inhabitants, rating the 7th most populous country on earth.  The density of the country is 1045 square kilometres; rating 11th in the world. The nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rating is $72.4 billion (USD) which equates to $455 per capita, rating an astonishing 157th in the world. As such, poverty is a serious problem which relates directly to the overall crime situation.
Re-active policing in Bangladesh is made even more difficult through the high police/citizen ratio; therefore the need to invest in prevention strategies appears more obvious. There is an over reliance and unrealistic expectation that the Bangladesh Police can be solely responsible for curbing the crime rate; however, it can play a crucial leadership and practitioner role in prevention.
Sl #
Country
Police-People Ratio
1
Bangladesh
1: 1138
2
India
1: 728
3
Philippines
1: 665
4
Pakistan
1: 625
5
Japan
1: 563
6
New Zealand
1: 416
7
Singapore
1: 295
8
Malaysia
1: 249
9
Thailand
1. 228
10
Hong Kong
1: 220
Table One – Police Populations Ratio – 2008

5.         Current Crime Situation in Bangladesh


There are a number of recent crime prevention and community safety surveys undertaken by Bangladesh Police, NGO’s and Donor organisations.

One survey undertaken by Safer World on behalf of the Department for International Development (Bangladesh - DFID) outlined statistics which were also identified in other surveys, and can therefore be utilized as being a fair representative viewpoint of the community attitudes of the people of Bangladesh. These statistics have been corroborated by a series of interviews and research undertaken by the UNDP Police Reform Programme. The Safer World research into human security, community safety and armed violence was undertaken throughout Bangladesh between September and December 2007.

When asked specifically about the most frequent crimes and injustices in Bangladesh, more than three-quarters (77 percent) thought that personal property crimes (for example, theft, burglary, robbery, mugging) were the most common problems. This perception was even greater among urban respondents (89 percent). The second highest cause of concern was dowry-related crime (56 percent). Other gender-related forms of insecurity included sexual violence and harassment (21 percent) and domestic violence (11 percent).

Disputes over properties were the third most frequently-cited form of crime/injustice (35 percent); a perception which was further supported by fears over land-grabbing and landlessness (15 percent) and slum evictions (4 percent). Drug abuse was the fourth most popular response (29 percent).

There is also a serious problem with many crimes going un-reported which impacts upon the victims, and also the data available to properly assess the crime situation. Just under two-fifths (38 percent) of households have experienced crime or injustice in the past two years. Theft was the most common crime identified; respondents reported 346 instances of theft over the survey period. This means that on average 8.65 percent of households experience a theft each year. It is notable that this disaggregation of respondent experiences does not correspond with even the highest rate of recorded theft in 2007.  Police statistics recorded only 12,015 thefts for a country of at least 20 million households – a rate of one theft per 0.06 percent of households each year. This suggests that the vast majority of crimes go unreported. Other crimes identified included damage to property, threat of physical violence, loss of property to land-grabbers, muggings, and physical violence by husbands against wives.

In all, 234 acts of violence were reported across the 2,000 surveyed households for the two year period prior to the conducting of field research. Of these just 22 incidents involved firearms; misuse of sticks and knives is more common. While this could indicate that there are low levels of weapons proliferation within society, there is substantive evidence to indicate that firearms and explosives are a pervasive threat to security. For example, several thousand weapons have been seized by the Rapid Action Battalion (RAB) since its establishment, implying that criminals have easy access to illegal weapons. Moreover, frequent seizures of explosives are also made. Between October 2006 and January 2007 nearly 200 people were injured by improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The availability of firearms and explosives is likely due to Bangladesh’s geographical location, making it easy to use as an international trafficking route.

At the present time in Bangladesh, MOHA and Bangladesh Police are taking the lead role in establishing a crime prevention and community safety programme through its efforts to implement the Community Policing Strategy (CPS) throughout the country. In time, other government ministries and NGO’s should also incorporate the principles and philosophies of crime prevention and community safety into their respective policies.  For example, the Ministry of Education (MOE) can identify where the principles of crime prevention can apply to its functions and incorporate some aspects to enhance the safety and well being of teachers and students within the school environment.

6.         Rationale for a National Crime Prevention Strategy


High levels of crime pose a serious threat to our emergent democracy. Violent crime often leads to a tragic loss of life and injury, and the loss of possessions and livelihood due to crime is incalculable. Crime results in the deprivation of the rights and dignity of citizens, and poses a threat to peaceful resolution of differences and rightful participation of all in the democratic process.

Crime casts fear into the hearts from all walks of life and prevents them from taking their rightful place in the development and growth of our country. It inhibits the citizens from communicating with one another freely, from engaging in economic activity and prevents entrepreneurs and investors from taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the country. The rights and freedoms which the constitution entrenches are threatened every time a citizen becomes a victim of crime.

For these reasons, the Government regards the prevention of crime as a national priority. This applies not only to the ministries, and the departments concerned with security and justice, but also to all other national departments which are able to make a contribution to a reduction in crime levels. Local governments will work together with the practitioners to implement the NCPS.
Some of the causes of crime are deep-rooted and related to the history and socioeconomic realities of the society. For this reason, a comprehensive strategy must go beyond providing only effective policing. It must also provide for mobilization and participation of civil society in assisting to address crime.

To effectively reduce crime, it is necessary to transform and reorganize government and facilitate real community participation. We need to weave a new social fabric, robust enough to withstand the stresses of rapid change in a new-born society. To expect this to happen too quickly is to sabotage proper planning and solid construction of new criminal justice machinery.
Most fundamentally this strategy requires that government moves beyond a mode of crisis management and reaction. Government must ensure that effective planning and sustainable success in reducing crime will reach well into the next century.

In Bangladesh, there are four main motivators, or drivers, which underpin the desire to enhance the safety and well being of the people. They evolve from the highest levels of government and extend down to local community groups through the extensive Community Policing networks. These are:

·         The Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh[5]
·         The Universal Charter of Human Rights[6]
·         The Ministry of Home Affairs Vision and Mission Statements; and
·         The Bangladesh Police Vision and Mission Statements.

These all provide legitimate authority to those responsible within the government and community for ensuring a safe and free society.  The following excerpts from these doctrines clearly justify the need to develop a National Crime Prevention Strategy in Bangladesh.

6.1        The Universal Charter for Human Rights


Adding further accountable responsibilities, the Universal Charter for Human Rights outlines that responsible bodies must adhere to the following commitments;

- ‘recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world

- it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human right should be protected by the rule of law
  
- the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human   person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom

- member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of   human rights and fundamental freedoms

- a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest   importance for the full realization of this pledge.’

6.2        The Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh


In part, the Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh outlines the following:

‘We, the people of Bangladesh, having proclaimed our Independence on the 26th day of March, 1971 and through [a historic war for national independence], established the independent, sovereign People's Republic of Bangladesh, pledge that it shall be a fundamental aim of the State to realise through the democratic process to socialist society, free from exploitation - a society in which the rule of law, fundamental human rights and freedom, equality and justice, political, economic and social, will be secured for all citizens’.

6.3        Ministry of Home Affairs - Vision and Mission Statements

In part, the Vision statement of the Ministry of Home Affairs states:

Create a safe habitable human environment by ensuring peace and security throughout the country’.
The Mission Statement reads:
‘Provide security to life and property, maintain law and order, conduct rescue operations, investigate criminal cases, fight criminals, crimes and militancy, ensure humane treatment to prisoners, protect border and coastal belt, check smuggling, formulate immigration and emigration related policies and combat trafficking in humans and drugs’.

6.4        Bangladesh Police - Vision and Mission Statements


Bangladesh Police are one of the few official organisations which has committed to providing a safe and secure society and acknowledges that it has a primary responsibility in regards to both detecting and preventing crime.  It is the organisation that has the current capacity to coordinate and deliver effective crime prevention strategies across the country and has shown a high level of commitment over recent years, to this cause. Bangladesh Police has reflected these within the organisational vision and mission statements outlined in the 2008-2010 Bangladesh Police Strategic Plan.

Further to this, the Police Act of 1861 and Metropolitan Police Ordinance outline the basic duties of a police officer:

- to obey and execute all orders and warrants lawfully issued to him by any competent authority
- to collect and communicate intelligence affecting the public peace
- to prevent the commission of offences and public nuisances
- to detect and bring offenders to justice; and
- to apprehend all persons who he is legally authorized to apprehend and for whose apprehension ground exists.

7.         Crime Prevention and Community Safety


The term ‘community safety’ features prominently throughout this document.  It is a frequently used term; however, it is difficult to define in precise terms because it has different meanings for different people and contexts. 

Community safety is a broad concept which can focus on the individual (physical and emotional well-being), as well as the broader community (economic, environmental and social well-being).  The literature on the subject refers to community safety as an aspect of ‘quality of life’ that incorporates issues such as crime prevention/reduction, road safety, public health, emergency management and the environment.

Crime prevention and community safety has not really been defined. Globally, various organisations implement crime prevention and community safety programs based on their perceptions and interpretations.  The risk is that without sufficient knowledge of the underlying principles and philosophies, crime prevention is often linked with policing and therefore police agencies are tasked exclusively with the role.  This has lead to restrictive programs which fall within the responsibility of the policing organisation, eliminating the scope to broaden its application through other stakeholders.  Nowadays, a broader approach is required and at the strategic level, all government and non government agencies can contribute. 

The lack of formal definitions however is not considered a problem as definitions tend to restrict initiative and encourages the development of a silo based mentally. By this it is meant that practitioners only work within the scope of the definition (and their authority) and lose the opportunity for broader initiatives.  Crime prevention and community safety can be as big, or as small as one wishes it to be.  This enables a better chance for effective implementation at all levels of government and community.  It allows for the development of more flexible programs which can be easily adapted to suit everybody’s needs.

Globally, the most effective programs are the ones which are owned, developed and implemented at the grass roots level.  They also take into account issues broader than just crime prevention as safety is an important component of the strategy to reduce the fear of crime.  People need to feel safe within their communities; therefore, strategies should take into account broader community needs and expectations.

Traditionally, organisations around the world have turned to the police and the criminal justice systems to deal with these problems. However, most of the work of these agencies generally deal with are after the event (re-active). A truly successful crime prevention strategy requires intervention before the event (pro-active). This is where the most recognisable dilemma emerges. Are the police the best body to provide the leadership role and coordination of crime prevention and community safety programs?  The answer is simple.  At the lower practitioner level, there is no other organisation suitably resourced to provide the infrastructure at grass roots level.  The police are mobilised throughout the country and have the capacity to deliver programs to schools, training to community groups etc.  At the practitioner level, policing organisations are still playing a major role if the delivery of crime prevention and community safety activities.  So long as other stakeholder holders are involved, this can be the appropriate model, as police have the resources to expand their responsibilities from detection to prevention as well.  They have the capacity to provide services down to village level, whereas other agencies do not have the diversity of such resources. 

Prior to 2006, there was sufficient evidence to suggest that the police, in general terms, were not well liked. This was primarily due to their past militant roles which required them to use a heavy hand. Furthermore, a large proportion of the community did not trust their police.  However, recent surveys confirm that this attitude is changing and that the police have been seen as willing to change, and are gaining support and respect from their communities.

The challenge now is for Government and Bangladesh Police hierarchies to support those police and provide the necessary opportunities to continue the cultural shift in the way to perform their functions. As such, if these gains in positive perceptions continue to improve, the scope to use police in localised crime prevention and community safety programs is encouraging and should be harnessed.

7.1        Crime Prevention; Elements and Approach


According to experts on crime prevention, for a crime to occur, three elements have to be present: ability, motivation; and opportunity. Eliminate any one of these, and the crime will not occur.  There are two general approaches to preventing crime. The first aims to prevent crime by making it more difficult, risky and less rewarding to commit. It focuses on the crime-prone situation rather than the offender.  Strategies include physical security, access control, design improvements, surveillance and police patrols. It is commonly referred to as "situational crime prevention".  The second seeks to prevent criminal behaviour by influencing the attitudes and behaviour of those most likely to offend. It aims to reduce the risk factors associated with offending such as poor parenting, school failure and restricted opportunities.  It involves measures such as parenting programmes, school enrichment and youth prevention projects, mentoring and helping young people into training and work. This is commonly referred to as "social or developmental crime prevention".

7. 2       Essential components of Crime Prevention Programs in Bangladesh.


The following issues are considered to be necessary components of the National Crime Prevention Strategy.  Each has philosophical reasons about why they are considered feasible crime prevention and community safety strategies.  They also have implications regarding the on going or extended impact caused through cause and effect.  There are numerous initiatives and strategies, long term and short term, which can be used to prevent crime at the local level. An understanding of these is essential for effective implementation. 

The Justice system has a large strategic role to play in crime prevention and community safety.   Crime prevention leads to lower numbers in prisons; however, history indicates that prisoner numbers will continue to grow with the emergence of new crimes and population increases.  Some of the methods for consideration should include probation systems, community work programs, and rehabilitation programs for prisoners, official warnings for first offenders, diversion programs for young people and visits to prison programs by young people considered to be at risk. 

  • Identify Existing Programs and Projects

Bangladesh has not been slow to respond to the implementation of crime prevention and community safety programs.  At both strategic and practitioner levels, there are various projects underway.  The NCPCC should endeavour to identify what programs exist in Bangladesh and to ensure a coordination role is adopted.


  • Compendium of Crime Prevention and Community Safety Projects

After the existing programs have been identified, the NCPCC should ensure the development of a compendium of crime prevention and community safety projects.

  • Reporting and Recording Crime

Statistical information at all levels is essential for practitioners to develop solutions to problems.  Programs and systems need to be introduced to encourage people to report crime and the data should be used widely.  Government commitment to this task is vital, as in the first instance; there will appear to be a sharp increase in the crime rate.  The reason is that the victims feel more confident to report the crime to police.



  • Cause and Effect

Practitioners also need to understand cause and effect.  For example, a strategy to increase arrest and suppression rates will lead to additional work and resources for policing.  A subsequent increase of prisoners in prisons leads to similar resourcing problems.  Further burdens are in turn placed on the judicial system leading to a back log of cases and the subsequent need for more courts to manage them.

  • Early Intervention Programs

Research shows that focusing on prevention and early intervention is more effective in the long-term than responses that may resolve only immediate crises. Early intervention involves intervening at critical points in a young person’s development and attempting to ensure that they are given the maximum opportunity to lead productive and law abiding lives. The Government of Bangladesh sees young people as the future of the country and should demonstrate its commitment to early intervention by supporting a large number of early intervention initiatives. These programs should be introduced through the education system and include drug awareness, protection against sexual assaults and the development of sport and recreation programs.  In some countries, police officers are attached to schools to ensure these issues are taught to young people.  This is a viable option in Bangladesh.  There is also a role within the Justice system regarding early intervention. 

  • Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)

CPTED is considered an excellent strategic tool to build crime out of communities.  The concepts of CPTED can be used at all levels and requires partnerships between police, government and communities.  It can have an impact on both existing infrastructure and proposed developments. 

  • Neighbourhood Watch Schemes

Natural surveillance is considered an excellent crime prevention strategy and should be encouraged.  Neighbourhood Watch Schemes generally attract corporate sponsorships to fund the coordination of the program.

  • Reducing the Fear of Crime

Many people report that they are concerned or fearful of crime. At public events, or in public spaces such as transport, shopping areas and parks, people can feel unsafe and apprehensive.  Crime and fear of crime are major concerns for many communities and can significantly reduce the quality of people's lives.  The fear of crime is particularly evident in the more vulnerable groups, such as young people, older people and women.  Specific strategies to reduce the fear of crime need to be undertaken

  • Poverty Reduction Strategies

Various initiatives are currently underway in Bangladesh regarding poverty reduction strategies.  There is a direct link between poverty and rates of crime.

  • Equitable Treatment of Women Victims of Crime

The strategy must take into account specific issues regarding women.  There is evidence to support the fact that domestic violence and sexual assaults are prevalent crimes in Bangladesh.  Women are fearful of making reports to police and these issues need to be addressed.
  • Role Models/Mentoring

Sporting, television and other high profile personalities are considered to be excellent role models for young people.  Individuals should be identified and approached to assist in the marketing of crime prevention programs.

  • Technology and Crime Prevention

Bangladesh is continuing its social and technological development.  Computers, internet, television and radio are considered excellent mediums to promote crime prevention programmes.

  • Drug Awareness and Enforcement Programs

The United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention strategies regarding Drug Abuse and Awareness and other programmes provide excellent opportunities to link into drug issues at the strategic level.  At local level, properly trained Community Policing Officers can adopt these strategies for implementation throughout schools in the area.

  • Research & Partnerships with Academic Institutions

The NCPCC should have a sound research capacity to determine best practice in contemporary crime prevention and community safety, including statistics, strategies and information regarding best practice. A partnership with the appropriate universities would be extremely beneficial.

  • Targeting Repeat Victimisation

The International Crime Victims Survey outlines that many victims of crime become a victim more than once.  This is a common thing around the world, and as such, groups which are more likely to become victims should be identified and targeted by the responsible agencies.  Victim support programs should be considered also.

  • Firearms Amnesty

There is an abundance of illicit weapons within the community.  These are a hazard in regards to both internal crime prevention and also national security.

  • Targeted Policing

By targeting recidivist offenders, or focusing on areas where particular crimes patterns are emerging, policing authorities can quickly arrest offenders and thereby reinforcing confidence in policing and reduce perceptions of fear within the community.  This approach to policing requires certain skills which need to be evidence based.  Analysis of criminal intelligence provides the means to identify what the real problems are in the community.

  • Community Policing Officers

Policy and strategy issues regarding crime prevention and community safety require implementation at some stage.  There needs to be practitioners on the ground to implement and coordinate projects.  Although there is a need for a true partnership approach, the police are often in the best logistical position to coordinate crime prevention.  As such, there is a recommendation for the establishment of Community Policing Officers in each of the police Stations.

7. 3       Underlying Principles of Crime Prevention and Community Safety Strategy


Crime prevention and community safety has underlying philosophies, principles and skills just like any other social science or discipline.  These are quite broad and crime prevention practitioners within Bangladesh will need to be trained in these skills.  There are fundamental principles which under-pin successful crime prevention and community safety strategies and adherence to these will enable the development of successful strategies and initiatives.  These principles include (but are not restricted to) the following:

  • Government agencies at all levels undertake a leadership role
  • The imperative is a whole of Government approach
  • Understanding cause and effect.
  • Understanding and reducing fear of crime
  • Coordination between agencies
  • Research and evidence based programming
  • The use of local level crime statistics in planning and implementation of programs
  • Encourage innovation
  • Resourcing within jurisdictions for government agencies
  • Resourcing for community based initiatives
  • Partnerships, sponsorships and donor support
  • Alliance with the media
  • Effective marketing and communication strategies
  • Evaluation of programmes
  • Keeping the community and stakeholders informed
  • Recognizing the role of community policing

This strategy concentrates on National Programmes and on developing a conceptual framework for crime prevention at all levels. Although committed to the programmes contained herein, the government sees this document as representing a working strategy, which should be refined, changed and improved on the basis of feedback and experience. In particular, divisional consultations will be held to develop civil society and local government responses to this strategy.

7.4                 The Objectives of National Crime Prevention Strategy

The National Crime Prevention Strategy has the following objectives:

  • The establishment of a comprehensive policy framework which will enable government to address crime in a coordinated and focused manner which draws on the resources of all government agencies, as well as civil society.
  • The promotion of a shared understanding and common vision of how we, as a nation, are going to tackle crime. This vision should also inform and stimulate initiatives at divisional and local level.
  • The development of a set of national programmes which serve to kick start and focus the efforts of various government departments in delivering quality service aimed at solving the problems leading to high crime levels.
  • The maximisation of civil society's participation in mobilising and sustaining crime prevention initiatives.
  • Creation of a dedicated and integrated crime prevention capacity which can conduct ongoing research and evaluation of departmental and public campaigns as well as facilitating effective crime prevention programmes at divisional and local level.

8.         Overall strategy on Crime Prevention and Community Safety in Bangladesh


The complexity of crime prevention means each level of government and community has a different role to play. Some are strategically focused while others more action orientated.  It would be impossible to outline all of these in this proposal. This paper outlines overall, general and specific strategies and framework believed appropriate to facilitate the evolution of the structure required to introduce crime prevention and community safety philosophies, strategies and finally action into current context of the social development of Bangladesh.

Overall Strategy;
·         family support and development can assist parents in dealing with emerging issues, especially the drug problem etc,
·         people can learn skills to protect their property from theft, or themselves from violence,
·         programs aimed at awareness can have a significant impact on the overall rate of crime,
·         incidents of domestic violence go unreported
·         sport and recreation opportunities can divert young people away from crime patterns,
·         town planners can build crime out of areas through innovative infrastructure design,
·         the justice system can develop programs to reduce the number of people in prisons, and return breadwinners to families,
·         Legislative and sentencing reform can have a strategic impact on the crime rate.

8.1        General Crime Prevention Strategies


Security and Safety Audits
Objective - identify and prioritise areas and issues of concern

Target Hardening
Objective – Make the commission of the offence more difficult to commit

Natural/Community Surveillance
Objective – Utilise local residents in natural surveillance – Neighbourhood Watch for example

Police in Schools Programs
Objective – To utilise the knowledge, skills and accessibility of police to provide training and information to young people through the school system

Community Surveys
Objective – Identify areas of concern to the community

Design of Public Space
Objective – Create safe and stimulating places for people to visit

Improve Lighting and Visibility
Objective – Identify un-safe areas and improve lighting and natural surveillance

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
Objective – Build crime prevention into infrastructure, design out crime opportunities

Recreation Facilities
Objective – Develop a range of safe and stimulating recreation ( parks, play grounds etc in each Mohalla) options, especially for young people

Police Youth Liaison
Objective – Improve understanding and communication between young people and police

Employment Programs
Objective -Generate meaningful work for young people

Road, Rail and River Safety Programs
Objective – NCPAC to seek representation from Departments within the Ministry of Communications, including Roads and Highways Department, Bangladesh Railway, Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation and Bangladesh Road Transport Authority. Identify risk areas and develop strategies to eliminate or reduce overall risk.

Suicide Prevention Programs
Objective – With other agencies, identify affected demographic and engage in collaborative support programs.

8.2        Specific Crime Prevention Strategies

8.2.1     Strategies for Reducing/Prevention anti social behaviour by young     people


School Based Projects and Services
Objective -Employ school facilities to reduce anti social behaviour

After School Clubs
Objective – Provide constructive activities for young people

Strengthen Families
Objective – Assist parents and children to effectively communicate with each other, and assist parents to support and guide their children

Religion and Faith
Objective – Enhance social behaviour and development

8.2.2     Strategies for Reducing/Preventing VIOLENCE


Conflict Resolution Training
Objective –Provide people with skills to resolve conflict successfully

Access control
Objective – Limit or screen people who can enter an area or site

Analyse role of alcohol and drugs in violent incidents
Objective – Determine the need for action on alcohol and other drug issues

Anti Violence Training
Objective – Provide members of the community with skills to prevent violent incidents

Personal Safety Strategies
Objective – Equip members of the community with strategies for avoiding potentially violent situations

Self Defence Skills
Objective – Equip people with skills to defend themselves in violent situations

Mediation Services
Objective – Provide local mechanisms for resolving disputes

Peer Education Programs
Objective – Support and encourage young people not to engage in violence

Role Models
Objective – Identifying community or high profile role models and using their position to encourage positive social behaviour

Anti Bullying Strategies in Schools
Objective – Discourage bullying behaviours

Local, Provincial and National Media Campaigns
Objective – Strengthen community knowledge and attitudes

8.2.3     Strategies for Reducing/Preventing MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT


Increase or introduce transport options
Objective – Reduce the incentive/motivation for motor vehicle theft

Motor Vehicle Related Activities
Objective – Provide alternatives for young people who wish to own or work with vehicles

Motor Vehicle Theft Surveillance Programs
Objective – Increase risk of detection

8.2.4     Strategies for Reducing/Preventing THEFT


This section outlines some strategies which can be used to address stealing from shops, house burglary, livestock theft and other forms of theft.

Increase Surveillance Opportunities
Objective – Increase of risk of detection

Publicise Increased Surveillance Opportunities
Objective – Increase perceived likelihood of detection

Property Marking/Identification
Objective – Reduce the rewards for theft

Restrict Potential Resale Sites
Objective – Reduce the rewards for theft

Research and Address Underlying Motivations for Theft
Objective – Reduce the incentive for theft

8.2.5     Strategies for Reducing/Preventing DRUG AND ALCOHOL ISSUES


School Education, Policies and Programs
Objective – Provide an educational environment which encourages young people to treat drugs responsibly

Drug and Alcohol Awareness Campaigns
Objective – Develop and environment which encourages people to make healthy choices about drug abuse

Parent and Community Awareness
Objective – Enable parents and community to identify signs of drug use and action and remedies to reduce/prevent on going abuse

9.         Proposed Framework for a National Approach


This framework only outlines the means by which the correct processes need to be installed within the Bangladesh social development ethos. It provides for the mechanisms necessary to enable the strategic and systematic changes to take place over the next decade. There are four tiers of legitimacy for a collaborative approach to the development and implementation of a whole of government, sustainable, crime prevention strategy. Those are:

Accountability - The Government of Bangladesh is accountable to the citizens through various doctrines, including the Charter of Human Rights and the Constitution.  The ultimate accountability for providing a safer and prosperous country unequivocally rests with Government.

Responsibility - The various Ministries’ within Government have the delegated powers, or responsibilities, to achieve Governments objectives. MOHA has the delegated responsibility, through its various departmental portfolios, to develop many of the social policies required for a crime prevention strategy. MOHA is well placed to provide the overall policy coordination role of a National strategy. The Ministry also has access to the necessary financial resources and the ability to action legislative change, if necessary.

Capability (Bangladesh Police, NGO’s and Donors)-This crime prevention strategy requires dedicated leadership and a large number of practitioners to be responsible for coordination at the ground level.  These practitioners will need to be skilled in contemporary crime prevention practices and have the capability to work closely with the community to ensure implementation. Bangladesh is densely populated and Bangladesh Police are the only agency (government or otherwise) equipped to be able to extend its influence into all aspects of the community and deliver a tangible service, rather than a rhetorical one. Police services around the world must have effective relationships with those they serve and in general terms, the police can rely of the cooperation of the law abiding members of society to help them overcome the elements of those who break the laws. In Bangladesh during these times of reform and development, there is also a perfect opportunity for Bangladesh Police to align itself with experts from NGO’s and aid donors, such as the United Nations (UN) who can provide financial and expert advice and support.

Capacity – The Community Crime prevention strategies require leadership at the coordination and practitioner levels, but most of the success stories emerge from instances where the community has been empowered to manage the safety of their own comminutes. This does not mean that vigilante type police services are used, on the contrary.  Communities have the capacity to understand the local problems at local level. They can use existing frameworks and resources to address their problems and should work closely with police practitioners to learn the skills of crime prevention and community safety.  In a country of over 150 million people, there is no other alternative.  Through effective partnerships with locally based Community Policing Officers (CPO’s), the community can be provided with the knowledge about how best they can address the underlying social issues often associated with crime.

Although this framework is not a complex one, there are various functions to be undertaken at all levels.  As previously outlined, this framework proposes the development of a two tiered strategy.  The Policy Function at Government Level and the Implementation Function at District Level. 

9.1        Strategic level; Ministry of Home Affairs


The Government of Bangladesh recognises that many citizens are concerned about crime and its impact on their lives.  MOHA has adopted a strong strategic leadership role in working to alleviate crime and violence.  Ownership of problems and therefore responsibility for solutions rests with the various government and non government stakeholders throughout the country.

In recognising that a truly holistic approach requires support from the highest level of Government, it is necessary for all Ministries to understand how their portfolios can contribute towards making Bangladesh a safer place for everybody.  MOHA should identify and agree upon a set of principles which under-pin the whole of Government approach to crime prevention and community safety.  Ministers would then be obliged to administer these principles through their respective social development policies and business.  The National Crime Prevention and Community Safety Strategy shall identify and promote innovative ways of reducing and preventing crime and the fear of crime. The programme includes research and practical initiatives including, national pilot projects, local prevention activities, communication and training initiatives.

Role


MOHA is the ultimate authority responsible for ensuring that crime prevention and community safety is an integral part of the social development agenda in Bangladesh.  The Ministry shall pledge and steer a holistic approach which encompasses cross jurisdictional, non government and community partnerships by;

             i.                 endorsing national holistic approach to crime prevention and community safety

            ii.                 supporting strategic thinking and policy development on crime prevention by leaders of the community

          iii.                 promoting strategic research in crime prevention

          iv.                 form strategic alliances with academic research institutions (for example - The Department of Criminology and Police Science within the Moulana Bhashani University)

           v.                 encouraging innovation and evidence based programme implementation in crime prevention

          vi.                 promoting collaboration within and across governments in partnership with the non-government and private sectors

        vii.                 promoting and integrating crime prevention principles and practice into the core business of other agencies

       viii.                 endorsing reporting and recording of the incidence of crime, and

          ix.                 Establishing and administering a set of whole of government “Agreed Principles for Cooperation” (Appendix six).

           x.                 establishing the National Crime Prevention Advisory Committee at Government level (NCPAC) and the National Crime Prevention Coordination Committee (NCPCC) within the Bangladesh Police

9.2        National Crime Prevention Advisory Committee (NCPAC)


(The establishment of the NCPAC is a recommendation of the Community Policing Strategy proposed by the UNDP PRP.)

Recognising the need of interagency coordination the strategy proposes a National Advisory Committee which will comprise of representatives from a broad range of stakeholders.  This is the ultimate authority responsible for ensuring that crime prevention and community policing is an integral part of the social development agenda in Bangladesh. This provides the opportunity for the government and police to work in partnership with the non government sector, and for mechanisms to allow the development of policy to facilitate the necessary change[7].

Role

               I.      Serve as the supreme body which endorses the National Strategy and provides strategic direction to the on going Crime Prevention and Community Policing initiatives in Bangladesh

             II.      Identify key stake holders and initiate a forum which can address the countries strategic priorities regarding Crime Prevention and Community Policing.

            III.      Develop the capacity to consult widely and represent a broad range of government and non government stakeholders

          IV.      Identify opportunities and existing networks

            V.      Promote strategic research in crime prevention and community policing

          VI.      Encourage innovation and evidence based program implementation in crime prevention and community policing

         VII.      Promote collaboration within and across governments in partnership with the non-government and private sectors.

9.3        National Crime Prevention Coordination Committee    (NCPCC)


(The establishment of the NCPAC is a recommendation of the Community Policing Strategy proposed by the UNDP PRP.)

National Crime Prevention Coordination Committee (NCPCC) in Police Headquarters will act as a central research, policy and strategic formulation body for Bangladesh Police and to support local police and civil society efforts in prevention of crime and implementation of community policing. The Coordination Committee is the supreme authority and will ensure interagency coordination and government commitment for the holistic implementation of Community policing program in Bangladesh, whereas this committee will have the administrative capacity to undertake research, formulate the programs, training and the monitoring and evaluation of the ongoing initiatives[8].

Composition


  • IG, Convener
  • All Additional IGs
  • DG RAB, member
  • Commissioner DMP, member
  • DIG training, member
  • DIG Finance, member
  • DIG Crime, member
  • Range DIGs, members
  • Metro Commissioners
  • AIG P&R, member
  • AIG Media, member
  • Representatives from NGO
  • Reps from donors community
  • Reps from business community
  • AIG Crime-1, member secretary
  • One expert/ Professional in Social science.

Role

                                 I.      Provide administrative support to implement National Crime Prevention Coordination strategy.

                               II.      Undertake extensive research to identify priority issues

                              III.      Identify viable and sustainable crime prevention program for Bangladesh

                            IV.      Monitor and evaluate implementation of the National strategy

                              V.      Approve work plan for National Crime Prevention and Community Policing in Bangladesh

                            VI.      Strengthen Crime Prevention Centre and Community Police Officers of Bangladesh

                           VII.      Advise the national advisory committee on the progress and short falls of crime prevention and community policing programs in Bangladesh.

9.4        Operational level; linking with Community policing strategy


The UNDP Police Reform Programme (Bangladesh) has previously submitted the Community Policing Strategy.  This has been endorsed by senior police command (table two) and has largely been implemented across the country.  This strategy links in well with that framework.
(Table two)

9.5        Role of Crime Prevention Centre in Police Headquarter


Crime Prevention Centre (CPC) at the Police Headquarters (AIG crime prevention as focal point and DIG crime PHQ as overall supervisor) will act as a central research, policy and strategic formulation unit for Bangladesh Police and to support local Police and civil society efforts in prevention of crime and implementation of community policing. This Centre will serve as a Secretariat for the National Coordination Committee of the Police headquarters.

9.6        Coordination with the NGOs

                                                                    
There is always scope for the police to utilize the resources of NGOs and use them as a partner playing an integral part as opposed to threat to police. It is apparent that NGOs are staffed by very enthusiastic committed people who are fully focused and dedicated to the aims of their respective organizations. Their success lies in their individual specialization and expertise. For this, the Crime Prevention Centre will coordinate the donors and I/NGO’s ongoing program and accommodate these initiatives in broader consultations with the agencies. The Center, in consultations with the agencies, will define the joint logical framework activities (LFA) and work-plan with partners and donors. (Who’s involved in what? Who’s responsible for what? Who has done what?). In no case, they will approach the local Police without prior consultation with this center.  This center will work as a central focal point for all the CP initiatives within and outside the organizations. However, district level NGOs in specific location will coordinate with the district CP cell.

9.7        Steps to implementation of the strategy


Once this strategy is approved, the Crime Prevention Centre (CPC) will finalize a work plan. The work plan will identify the lead partner(s) for each of the objectives in the strategy and provides a timeline for completing the activities associated with each strategic output.

Crime Prevention Centre will convene a meeting of relevant stakeholders to develop a work plan that details the activities and channels for each of the interventions desired by the strategy paper.

10.       Crime Analysis


Knowing how, where and when to intervene requires both an understanding of the nature of the crime problem and the appreciation of what is available in terms of interventions and crime prevention strategies for tackling them. There needs to be clear understanding of which crime occurs at which locations, what the crime generators are likely to be in terms of opportunities, how offences are committed and when they take place. Data are also needed on, which interventions are appropriate to each situation, what are the tactical, organizational and environmental conditions for their successful implementation and what are the likely economic and opportunity costs for their deployment.

There are many ways to intervene to prevent the crime. Some involve making targets less vulnerable by strengthening them in some way (fitting bolts and locks), other focus on improving surveillance or by boosting guardianship and some raise awareness of crime risks through publicity campaigns or directly target offenders through targeted policing.

The effectiveness with which crime prevention measures are deployed depends on how far interventions are tackling the types of crime that community faces and if appropriate, how accurately they are targeted, how well they are implemented and how receptive local communities are to having them in their area.

Different types of analysis are required to support activities such as targeting, project implementation and community engagement. Effective implementation needs to be informed by an understanding of the physical and social characteristics of the affected areas as well as knowledge and experience of project management, partnership working and data sharing.

A holistic approach to analysis for intervention would involve learning not only about patterns of crime and disorder but also about other factors that affect the targeting, implementation and ultimately the effectiveness of crime prevention measures. These include the following;

Ø       The distribution of crime opportunities
Ø       Crime prevention strategies and their appropriateness
Ø       Methods of resource allocation and targeting
Ø       Partnership, engagement and support of communities for the deployment of crime prevention on the ground
Ø       Likely sustainability of crime Prevention measures.

10.1      Crime pattern Analysis (CPA)


Understanding the patterns of crime and the mechanisms that generate them is a good starting point. Crime are not unique random events but rather share a number of common characteristics or features reflecting the activities of both victims and offenders; spatial clustering, repeat victimization, specific modus operandi, similar demographic and social characteristics.
CPA is a set of systematic analytical process directed as providing timely and pertinent information relative to crime pattern and trends to assist operational and administrative functions in the planning and deployment of resources. CPA attempts to form a picture of the nature and scale of crime in particular area. The size of the area, or the type and number of crimes examined may vary. Descriptive or inferential statistics are used for analysis, which may be supplemented by qualitative material.

A crime pattern is the occurrence of similar offences in defined geographic area. The only characteristics common to these cases are type of crime, type of location targeted and geography. These crimes are usually/ may not be committed by the same offenders. When we know the crime patterns, and connection, we can predict what future crime may occur then plan an operation to catch the criminals and prevent similar crime in future.

10.2      The Crime Analysis framework


The mechanisms that generate crime patterns are shaped by the physical and social environment. The crime data alone are not sufficient fully to account for all the factors those analyses for the purposes of intervention to cover. It is not essential always to include environmental data in the analysis of crime problems. However when crime patterns are placed into their social and physical environmental context, additional information about their manifestation can be explored.  For this purpose this strategy proposes a crime analysis framework based upon the following two categories;

            Crime Cantered Analysis (CCA)
            Crime Environment Analysis (CEA)

Further details of the crime analyses frame work is attached in annex. Based upon this framework separate technical specifications will be developed and a program will be set up in Crime Prevention Centre with support of ICT component of PRP.

11.       Evaluation


A full evaluation should be conducted 12 months after implementation of the National Strategy.  Monitoring during the implementation process is to be undertaken by the NCPCC.

12.       Conclusion


The discipline of crime prevention and community safety is very broad and responsibility rests with a large range of stakeholders. The framework for the strategy is designed to allow a great deal of flexibility into the process. Bangladesh’s social development is progressing rapidly and the people appear excited by the change. The main emphasis throughout this framework is partnerships, empowerment and acceptance of responsibility. These are philosophical requirements which can only be instilled through cultural change. This is the reason that a National Strategy has to be lead and supported by the highest authority, while ownership and implementation rests with the community.

This framework shall enable the establishment of the systems and processes needed to develop and implement the overall strategy.

Appendix:        Agreed Principles of Cooperation


These principles will provide Ministries with the guiding principles necessary to emboss crime prevention and community safety into their portfolio business.  The following is an example of what can be adopted in Bangladesh.

“All Ministries, on behalf of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, hereby agree to adopt the following principles regarding crime prevention and community safety”

  • Crime prevention and community safety is the responsibility of all sectors of the community – all levels of government, police, business and industry, non-government, residents’ groups, school and other service providers

  • Different types of crime and crime prevention are suitable for approaches at different levels. Government agencies, for example, have a role to play in crime prevention at the National, District and Thana policy levels.

  • Strategic approaches to crime prevention are more effective than individual or one off initiatives or projects and District Governments have the role of leadership to develop crime prevention strategies with stakeholders from all sectors of the community

  • Development and promotion of best practice in crime prevention based on research findings is critical to ensure impact and best use of resources

  • Bipartisan commitment to crime prevention action across a broad range of policy areas should be sought by all District Governments to achieve reduced opportunities for the commission of crime and to improve the social and economic conditions that may impact on offending. Commitment to crime prevention from leaders should be clear and unequivocal. Commitment should be in the form of philosophical support and longer term structured commitment to encouraging, funding and resourcing innovative projects

  • Crime prevention and community safety is an important and necessary component of the country’s social development and capacity building priorities.


 

 

 

 

 





Appendix:        The Crime Analysis


Knowing how, where and when to intervene requires both an understanding of the nature of the crime problem and the appreciation of what is available in terms of interventions and crime prevention strategies for tackling them. There needs to be clear understanding of which crime occurs at which locations, what the crime generators are likely to be in terms of opportunities, how offences are committed and when they take place. Data are also needed on, which interventions are appropriate to each situation, what are the tactical, organizational and environmental conditions for their successful implementation and what are the likely economic and opportunity costs for their deployment.

There are many ways to intervene to prevent the crime. Some involve making targets less vulnerable by strengthening them in some way (fitting bolts and locks), other focus on improving surveillance or by boosting guardianship and some raise awareness of crime risks through publicity campaigns or directly target offenders through targeted policing.

The effectiveness with which crime prevention measures are deployed depends on how far interventions are tackling the types of crime that community faces and if appropriate, how accurately they are targeted, how well they are implemented and how receptive local communities are to having them in their area.

Different types of analysis are required to support activities such as targeting, project implementation and community engagement. Effective implementation needs to be informed by an understanding of the physical and social characteristics of the affected areas as well as knowledge and experience of project management, partnership working and data sharing.

The intervention process begins with problem analysis followed by policy options appraisal and than progresses to implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review. Analyses should be done in at each stage through out the processes. Relevant analyses in the initial stage would focus on crime problems and socio environmental contexts and the later stages would be concerned with the measurement of policy impacts and the attribution of observed changes to interventions etc.

Crime analysis has three parts i.e. Crime pattern Analysis, General Profile Analysis and Crime Control Method Analysis.

CPA attempts to form a picture of the nature and scale of crime in particular area. The size of the area, or the type and number of crimes examined may vary. Descriptive or inferential statistics are used for analysis, which may be supplemented by qualitative material.

General Profile analysis attempts to identify typical characteristics of perpetrators of certain crimes. General profile analysis may focus not only the offender, but also one likely victim of crime.

Crime Control Method; Analysis. Involves the evaluation of methods and techniques introduced with the aim of establishing their future usefulness.

A holistic approach to analysis for intervention would involve learning not only about patterns of crime and disorder but also about other factors that affect the targeting, implementation and ultimately the effectiveness of crime prevention measures. These include the following;

Ø       The distribution of crime opportunities
Ø       Crime prevention strategies and their appropriateness
Ø       Methods of resource allocation and targeting
Ø       Partnership, engagement and support of communities for the deployment of crime prevention on the ground
Ø       Likely sustainability of crime Prevention measures.

Crime pattern Analysis (CPA)

            Understanding the patterns of crime and the mechanisms that generate them is a good starting point. Crime are not unique random events but rather share a number of common characteristics or features reflecting the activities of both victims and offenders; spatial clustering, repeat victimization, specific modus operandi, similar demographic and social characteristics.
CPA is a set of systematic analytical process directed as providing timely and pertinent information relative to crime pattern and trends to assist operational and administrative functions in the planning and deployment of resources. CPA attempts to form a picture of the nature and scale of crime in particular area. The size of the area, or the type and number of crimes examined may vary. Descriptive or inferential statistics are used for analysis, which may be supplemented by qualitative material.

A crime pattern is the occurrence of similar offences in defined geographic area. The only characteristics common to these cases are type of crime, type of location targeted and geography. These crimes are usually/ may not be committed by the same offenders. When we know the crime patterns, and connection, we can predict what future crime may occur then plan an operation to catch the criminals and prevent similar crime in future.


The Crime Analysis framework

            The mechanisms that generate crime patterns are shaped by the physical and social environment. The crime data alone are not sufficient fully to account for all the factors those analyses for the purposes of intervention to cover. It is not essential always to include environmental data in the analysis of crime problems. However when crime patterns are placed into their social and physical environmental context, additional information about their manifestation can be explored.  

Objectives of Crime Analysis Framework

Ø       To study the criminal incidents,
Ø       To identify the patterns, trends of the problems,
Ø       To analyse these trends, patterns and the problems,
Ø       To disseminate information to police units so that they can develop tactics and strategies for future interventions.


Output of Crime Analysis Framework

Crime pattern-               Nature and distribution of crime within an area
Crime trends-                Changes in the area’s crime pattern
Crime series-                 Crime with common offender
Crime hotspots-                        An area with high numbers of criminals incidents
Crime clusters               Groups of crime linked by commonality in their                                                               character.


For this purpose this strategy proposes a crime analysis framework based upon the following two categories;

Crime centered analysis (CCA)

CCA uses a range of measurements and statistical techniques to identify the manifestation of crime and how it is changing overtime. It includes analysis of spatial distribution, its temporal patterns and how crime within one area compared with that elsewhere.

Relevant questions to ask in relation to CCA

Where does crime occur?
When does crime occur?
When crime occurs, where do they occur?
Where crime occurs, when do they occur?
How crime does occurs (MO analysis)
Do areas with one crime problem have other crime problems?
Where are these areas?
Which and how many crimes do they have?
How much of the population is effected?
How concentrated is crime?
To what extent are there repeat crimes?
What are the time intervals between repeats?
Where repeat crime concentrates?
Who are the victims and who are the offenders?
Do offenders live in the areas with the highest crime rates?

Aggregate data for Crime Centered Analysis (CCA);

Tabulation of crime counts and derivation of crime rates
Identification of areas with significantly high and low crime
Benchmarking of area crime rates against comparison areas
Identification of crime mix and its variation across areas
Identification of areas falling into the worst percentile on one or more crime types
Derivations of composite crime indices for ranking of areas
Calculation of the concentration of crime at area level
Identification of repeat crime by area
Identification of temporal variations in crime by area

Result to get from CCA

Is the volume of crime increasing or decreasing
Is crime affecting the same areas or new areas?
Are crime diffusing or concentrating
Is there evidence of displacement or crime switch?


Crime Environment Analysis (CEA)

CEA examines the relationship between crime and aspects of the physical and social environment. It include exploring links between crime and community level characteristics and between crime and other factors such as land use, transport routes, the crime generator factors, crime attractors and crime prevention measures (if available).

Relevant questions to ask in relation to CEA

What types of area have high crimes?
Do they have particular types of housing or built environment?
Are they policy priorities areas?
What types of transport and communications do they have?
Are they accessible to offenders?
Do they have poor natural surveillance?
Do they have a large number of potential attractors?
Do they have crime prevention measures already? If so which…

Result; Crime Environment Analysis (CEA)

Crime level within policy priority areas for area based initiatives
Crime profile for town centers, out of town retail parks, industrial estates, transport hubs, economic development areas and urban cultural quarters within a region
Cross border crime (internal and international areas)



Data requirements and sources

            There are ranges of existing or secondary data for profiling local crime problems and for identifying contextual factor that either facilitate or pose obstacles to implementing crime prevention measures on ground. Some of them are consistent in format and others are subject to local variations how they are grouped and categorized. Here are some of the illustrations of sources of data which can be used for crime analyses.

Area crime level (recorded crime- police statistics)
Actual victimization (unreported plus reported- survey data)
Crime opportunities within an area (secondary and survey data)
Perceptions of crime within an area
Perceptions of crime opportunities
Fear of crime
Anger about crime
Shock about crime
Perception of safety



[1]Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh - Appendix 4
[2]Charter of Human Rights - Appendix 3 - Proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_prevention
[4] https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html
[5]Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh - Appendix 4
[6]Charter of Human Rights - Appendix 3 - Proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948
[7] Community Policing – National Strategy for Bangladesh, UNDP Police Reform Programme (2008) p 29
[8] Ibid., p 30
                                                           24


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Anika Devi received her Bachelor’s degree in Media, Culture and Communication from New York University in 2012. She began freelancing for Business Solutions BD in 2010 and joined the team as a staff writer three years later. She currently serves as the assistant editor.
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